A scientist in a lab coat, gloves, and protective goggles, wearing a mask, works on a touchscreen device in a laboratory. Cabinets and lab equipment used for preclinical ADME studies are visible in the background.

PK/PD Services

PK/PD studies help confirm the test article exposure and biomarker level in systemic circulation and tissues, particularly in target organs to understand the correlation of the test article exposure with its PD effect using diseased or healthy animal models. Pharmaron’s experienced team provides PK/PD services to examine several parameters in support of regulatory submissions. The quantification of the test article is conducted by the DMPK and in vitro biology teams. Toxicokinetic studies can be conducted alongside ongoing toxicology programs as well.

A gloved hand is operating the touchscreen of a QuantStudio 7 Flex machine. The screen displays details of a genetic toxicology experiment, including start time and various metrics. The QuantStudio 7 Flex logo is visible on the left side of the device.

General PK/PD Evaluation

  • Formulation development
  • Bioavailability
  • Clearance
  • Half-life
  • Dose linearity study
  • Tissue distribution
  • Metabolite analysis
  • Biliary excretion
A scientist wearing a white lab coat, blue gloves, and a face mask uses a pipette to transfer liquid into a test tube. Various lab equipment is on the table in front of them, including a rack of test tubes and other lab containers essential for bioanalytical development experiments.


  • CSF, Brain homogenate, Kp
  • Unbound level in brain, Kpuu
  • Microdialysis
Close-up of a high-precision scientific instrument, likely a mass spectrometer, featuring a complex array of wires, tubes, and metal components set within a blue and silver casing. The background includes additional lab equipment blurred to focus on the main device used in bioanalytical development.


  • Ussing Chamber, Fa/Fg/Fh evaluation
  • Intraduodenal/Intracolonic/Capsule dosing
liquid in orange vial tray

Drug-Drug Interactions (DDI)

  • Pre-treatment with CYP inhibitor
  • Transporters
    • P-gp
    • BCRP
    • OATP inhibitors/transgenic animal